Trauma is the most common cause of a fractured tooth. Tooth fractures that expose the pulp chamber (living part of the tooth) allow bacteria to inhabit the tooth. The tooth then becomes infected and dies causing your pet pain and discomfort. Fractured teeth need to be treated and depending on the tooth and the severity of the fracture, the treatment options available are root canal therapy (where the tooth can be saved and remain functional) or surgical extraction.
If the pulp is not exposed with the fracture and there is no evidence of disease on the dental x-ray, a bonding agent may be applied to the tooth so that the exposed dentin is not sensitive. This also helps prevent bacteria from traveling from the mouth potentially infection the pulp later in time.